Virginia Tech, April 23-25, 2015
The American Civil War transformed citizenship. But many questions remain about the nature and implications of this process, stretching from the 1850s to the 1870s and beyond. What did citizenship mean before the war and what did it mean after? How, why, when, and where did the transformation take place? What were its limitations? How were legal changes connected to social conflicts or cultural developments? Were there international ramifications? These questions, and more, will be the subject of a conference on “Citizenship in the Era of the Civil War” in Blacksburg, April 23-25 2015.
Citizenship was transformed most visibly with the abolition of slavery, the claiming of political rights by African American men, and the new definition of national citizenship contained in the Fourteenth Amendment. But even before the Reconstruction amendments, the war itself had begun to destabilize American citizenship. In both the Union and the Confederacy, the exigencies of war caused government to make new demands upon the governed—including women, African Americans, and immigrants, as well as white male citizens—while material hardships intensified the people’s expectations of their governments. Wartime policies such as conscription signaled new definitions of the relationship between individual and government. This was not a simple story of an already-fixed model of citizenship expanding to include new constituencies. Rather, the Civil War era saw the emergence of new forms of political belonging; of new ideas about the nature of allegiance; of deeply unsettling challenges to the basic frameworks of American politics and society. The very concept of citizenship was being transformed, not just in legal terms but in wide-ranging social, cultural, and political ways as well.
All presenters will submit written versions of their papers in advance of the conference, and a selection of papers will be published in a volume to be edited by conference organizer Paul Quigley.
THURSDAY APRIL 23 2015
Opening panel: Alternatives To Citizenship
“Against Citizenship: Rethinking Popular Politics and State Action in a World of Subjecthood.” Gregory Downs, City College of New York.
“From Citizens to Subjects: Monarchism and Stabilization in Reconstruction.” Andrew Heath, Sheffield University.
“On the Other Side of Citizenship: Free People of Color in Civil War North Carolina.” Warren Milteer, Virginia Tech.
6pm – 7:30pm. Dinner
7:30pm – 8:30pm. Keynote Lecture.
Title TBA. Steven Hahn, University of Pennsylvania.
FRIDAY APRIL 24 2015
9am-10:30am. Race And Citizenship Across National Borders
“Black Skin and White Hearts: Emancipation, Racial Authenticity, and Citizenship in Comparative Perspective.” Adam Thomas, University of California, Irvine.
“Of Blood and Nation: Guyer v. Smith and the Citizen Family.” Kristin Collins, Boston University School of Law.
“The Untaggables.” Dennis Hidalgo, Virginia Tech.
11am-12:30pm. The Politics of Citizenship
“Suffrage for White Men Only: The Disfranchisement of Free Men of Color in Antebellum North Carolina.” Lucas Kelley, Virginia Tech.
“The Political Idea of Citizenship in Virginia’s Constitutional and Secessionist Conventions, 1850-1861.” Cristina Bon, Catholic University of Milan.
“Citizenship for Sale?: Newspaper Advertising and the Presidential Elections of 1860 and 1864.” Lawrence Kreiser, Stillman College.
2:15pm-3:45pm. African Americans and The Problems of Citizenship
“In the Temple of American Liberty.” Elizabeth Regosin, St. Lawrence University.
“Untenable Freedom: Black Women and Wartime Emancipation in Washington, D.C.” Tamika Richeson, University of Virginia.
“The ‘Fire Fiend,’ Black Firemen, and Citizenship in the Urban South.” Caitlin Verboon, Yale University.
4:15pm-5:45pm. Citizen Soldiers And Citizen Veterans
“The Republican Tradition and the Challenge of Command in Civil War Citizen-Armies.” Drew S. Bledsoe, Lee University.
“Replacement Rebels: Confederate Substitution and the Issue of Citizenship.” Patrick Doyle, University of London – Royal Holloway.
“Work, Citizenship, and Confederate Veterans, 1865-1868.” David Williard, University of St. Thomas.
6pm-7pm. Keynote Lecture
“Law Outside the Nation: Overlapping Jurisdictions and Conflicting Conceptions of Citizenship.” Laura Edwards, Duke University.
7pm. Dinner (on your own)
SATURDAY APRIL 25 2015
9am-10:30am. Oaths and Occupations
“’I am a citizen of Heaven!’: William H. Wharton, Andrew Johnson, and Citizenship in Occupied Nashville.” Lucius Wedge, University of Akron.
“Swallowing the Oath: Citizenship and the Limits of Loyalty in Virginia’s Shenandoah Valley during the Civil War.” Jonathan Berkey, Concord University.
“Citizenship – Compulsory or Convenient: Federal Officials, Confederate Prisoners, and the Oath of Allegiance.” Angela Zombek, St. Petersburg College.
11am-12:30pm. Postwar Citizenship and the Law
“A Test Case on the Legitimacy of Secession in the Aftermath of the Civil War.” Cynthia Nicoletti, University of Virginia School of Law.
“The Lost History of the Fourteenth Amendment’s Disqualification Clause.” Taja-Nia Y. Henderson, Rutgers School of Law.
“’As My Wife Is a Citizen’: Interracial Marriage, the Fourteenth Amendment, and Radical Reconstruction.” Bradley Proctor, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
2pm-3:30pm. Transnational Perspectives
“To ‘Serve Both as a Light and as a Beacon to Our Noble Old State’: Southern Citizens in Latin America.” Claire Wolnisty, University of Kansas.
“The Impact of Republicanism on the Meaning of Citizenship in the post-Civil War South and French Algeria during the early Third Republic.” Timothy Roberts, Western Illinois University.
“Chinese Immigrants and the Idea of American Citizenship during the Civil War Era.” Earl Maltz, Rutgers University, Camden.
3:30pm-4pm. Closing discussion